Oxygen

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8 nitrogenoxygenfluorine
-

O

S
General
Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8
Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens
Group, Period, Block 162, p
Appearance colorless (gas)
very pale blue (liquid)
Standard atomic weight 15.9994(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p4
Electrons per shell 2, 6
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.429 g/L
Melting point 54.36 K
(-218.79 °C, -361.82 °F)
Boiling point 90.20 K
(-182.95 °C, -297.31 °F)
Critical point 154.59 K, 5.043 MPa
Heat of fusion (O2) 0.444 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (O2) 6.82 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (O2)
29.378 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K       61 73 90
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic
Oxidation states 2, −1
(neutral oxide)
Electronegativity 3.44 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1313.9 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3388.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 5300.5 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 60 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 48 pm
Covalent radius 73 pm
Van der Waals radius 152 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 26.58 m W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 330 m/s
CAS registry number 7782-44-7
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of oxygen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
16O 99.76% O is stable with 8 neutrons
17O 0.038% O is stable with 9 neutrons
18O 0.21% O is stable with 10 neutrons
References
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In science, oxygen (IPA: /ˈɒksɪdʒən/) is a chemical element with the chemical symbol O and atomic number 8. The word oxygen derives from two roots in Greek, οξύς (oxys) (acid, lit. sharp) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer, lit. begetter). In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier coined the name oxygen from the Greek roots mentioned above because he erroneously thought that it was a constituent of all acids. (The definition of acid has since been revised). Oxygen has a valency of 2. On Earth it is usually bonded to other elements covalently or ionically. Examples for common oxygen-containing compounds include water (H2O), sand (silica, SiO2), and rust (iron oxide, Fe2O3).

Diatomic oxygen (O2) is one of the two major components of air (20.95%). It is produced by plants during photosynthesis, and is necessary for aerobic respiration in animals. It is toxic to obligate anaerobic organisms and was a poisonous waste product for early life on Earth.

Triatomic oxygen (ozone, O3) forms through radiation in the upper layers of the atmosphere and acts as a shield against UV radiation.


Contents

Characteristics

The colour of liquid oxygen is a blue similar to sky blue. The phenomena are not related; the colour of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering.
The colour of liquid oxygen is a blue similar to sky blue. The phenomena are not related; the colour of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering.
Dioxygen, O2, is a gas at standard conditions, consisting of 2-atom molecules. Elemental oxygen is most commonly encountered in this form, as 21% of Earth's atmosphere. Note that the double bond depicted here is an oversimplification; see triplet oxygen.
Dioxygen, O2, is a gas at standard conditions, consisting of 2-atom molecules. Elemental oxygen is most commonly encountered in this form, as 21% of Earth's atmosphere. Note that the double bond depicted here is an oversimplification; see triplet oxygen.
Ozone, O3, is a gas at standard conditions, consisting of 3-atom molecules. This oxygen allotrope is rare on Earth and is found mostly in the stratosphere.
Ozone, O3, is a gas at standard conditions, consisting of 3-atom molecules. This oxygen allotrope is rare on Earth and is found mostly in the stratosphere.

The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth, O2, is known as dioxygen.

At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen exists as a diatomic molecule with the formula O2, in which the two oxygen atoms are bonded to each other with the electron configuration of triplet oxygen. This bond has a bond order of two, and is thus often very grossly simplified in description as a double bond.[1] Triplet oxygen is the ground state of the oxygen molecule. The electron configuration of the molecule has two unpaired electrons occupying two degenerate molecular orbitals. These orbitals are classified as antibonding, so the diatomic oxygen bond is weaker than the diatomic nitrogen bond, where all bonding molecular orbitals are filled. Though unpaired electrons are commonly associated with high reactivity in chemical compounds, triplet oxygen is relatively (and fortunately) nonreactive by comparison with most radicals.

Singlet oxygen, a name given to several higher energy species of molecular oxygen in which all the electron spins are paired, is much more reactive towards common organic molecules. In nature, singlet oxygen is commonly formed from water during photosynthesis, using the energy of sunlight. It is also produced by the immune system as a source of active oxygen. Carotenoids in photosynthetic organisms and possibly also in animals, play a major role in absorbing energy from singlet oxygen and converting it to the unexcited ground state, before it can cause harm to tissues.

Liquid O2 and solid O2 are clear substances with a light sea-blue color. In normal triplet form they are paramagnetic due to the spin magnetic moments of the unpaired electrons in the molecule, and the negative exchange energy between neighboring O2 molecules. Liquid oxygen is attracted to a magnet to a sufficient extent that a bridge of liquid oxygen may be supported against its own weight between the poles of a powerful magnet, in laboratory demonstrations. Liquid O2 is usually obtained by the fractional distillation of liquid air.

Oxygen is slightly soluble in water, but naturally occurring dissolved amounts are enough to support animal life (see below).

O2 has a bond length of 121 pm and a bond energy of 498 kJ/mol.[2]

Allotropes

Ozone, the less common triatomic allotrope of oxygen, is a poisonous gas with a distinct, sharp odor. It is thermodynamically unstable toward the more common dioxygen form. It is formed continuously in the upper atmosphere of the Earth by short-wave UV radiation, and also functions as a shield against UV radiation reaching the ground. Ozone has recently been found to be produced by the immune system as an antimicrobial (see below). Liquid and solid O3 (ozone) have a deeper blue color than ordinary oxygen, and they are unstable and explosive.

A newly discovered allotrope of oxygen, tetraoxygen (O4), is a deep red solid that is created by pressurizing O2 to the order of 20 GPa. Its properties are being studied for use in rocket fuels and similar applications, as it is a much more powerful oxidizer than either O2 or O3.[3][4]

Applications

Uptake of oxygen from the air is the essential purpose of respiration, so oxygen supplementation has found use in medicine (as oxygen therapy). People who climb mountains or fly in non-pressurized aeroplanes sometimes have supplemental oxygen supplies; the reason is that increasing the proportion of oxygen in the breathing gas at low pressure acts to augment the inspired oxygen partial pressure nearer to that found at sea-level.

A home oxygen concentrator in situ in an Emphysema patient's house. The model shown is the DeVILBISS LT 4000.
A home oxygen concentrator in situ in an Emphysema patient's house. The model shown is the DeVILBISS LT 4000.

A notable application of oxygen as a very low-pressure breathing gas, is in modern spacesuits, where use of nearly pure oxygen at a total ambient pressure of about one third normal, results in normal blood partial pressures of oxygen. This trade-off of breathing gas content and needed pressure is important for space applications, because the issue of flexible spacesuits working at Earth sea-level pressures remains a technological challenge of aerospace technology. Oxygen is used in welding (such as the oxyacetylene torch), and in the industrial production of steel and methanol. Also, liquid oxygen finds use as a classic oxidizer in rocket propulsion.

Oxygen presents two spectrophotometric absorption bands peaking at the wavelengths 687 and 760 nanometers. Some scientists have proposed to use the measurement of the radiance coming from vegetation canopies in those oxygen bands to characterize plant health status from a satellite platform.[citation needed] This is because in those bands, it is possible to discriminate the vegetation's reflectance from the vegetation's fluorescence, which is much weaker. The measurement presents several technical difficulties due to the low signal to noise ratio and due to the vegetation's architecture, but it has been proposed as a possibility to monitor the carbon cycle from satellites on a global scale.

Oxygen, as a supposed mild euphoric, has a history of recreational use (see oxygen bar). However, the reality of a pharmacological effect is doubtful, a metabolic boost being the most plausible explanation. Controlled tests of high oxygen mixtures in diving (see nitrox) and other activities, even at higher than normal pressures, demonstrated no particular effects on humans other than promotion of an increased tolerance to aerobic exercise.

In the 19th century, oxygen was often mixed with nitrous oxide to temper its analgesic effect. A stable 50% gaseous mixture (Entonox) is commonly used in medicine today as an analgesic. However, the common basic anaesthetic mixture is 30% oxygen with 70% nitrous oxide; the pain-suppressing effects, obviously, are due to the nitrous oxide and not to oxygen.

History

Oxygen was first described by Michał Sędziwój, a Polish alchemist and philosopher in the late 16th century. Sędziwój thought of the gas given off by warm niter (saltpeter) as "the elixir of life".[5]

Oxygen was more quantitatively discovered by the Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele some time before 1773, but the discovery was not published until after the independent discovery by Joseph Priestley on August 1, 1774, who called the gas dephlogisticated air (see phlogiston theory). Priestley published discoveries in 1775 and Scheele in 1777; consequently Priestley is usually given the credit. Both Scheele and Priestley produced oxygen by heating mercuric oxide.

Scheele called the gas 'fire air' because it was the only known supporter of combustion. It was later called 'vital air' because it was and is vital for the existence of animal life.

The gas was named by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, after Priestley's publication in 1775, from Greek roots meaning "acid-former". As noted, the name reflects the then-common incorrect belief that all acids contain oxygen. This is also the origin of the Japanese name of oxygen "sanso" (san=acid, so=element).

Oxygen was first time condensed in 1883 by professors of Jagiellonian University - Zygmunt Wróblewski (Polish chemist) Karol Olszewski (Polish physicist and chemist).

Biological role

Delayed oxygen build-up in earth's atmosphere and oceans in reaction to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis: A) no oxygen produced by biosphere, B) oxygen produced, but absorbed in oceans and by seabed rock, C) oxygen starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer.
Delayed oxygen build-up in earth's atmosphere and oceans in reaction to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis: A) no oxygen produced by biosphere, B) oxygen produced, but absorbed in oceans and by seabed rock, C) oxygen starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer.
Fluctuations of oxygen levels in the atmosphere over the past 500+ million years, with accompanying events: 1) Radiation of animal phyla (Cambrian explosion) -  2) First land plants -  3) Ordovician-Silurian extinction events -  4) Huge forests form on land, first land animals and seed plants -  5) Coal formation, first conifers, insect and amphibian giantism -  6) Low ocean levels, supercontinent Pangaea forms -  7) Permian-Triassic extinction event -  8) First primitive flowering plants and dinosaurs -  9) Triassic-Jurassic extinction event -  10) Age of dinosaurs -  11) Radiation of flowering plants -  12) Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event -  13) Radiation of mammals
Fluctuations of oxygen levels in the atmosphere over the past 500+ million years, with accompanying events: 1) Radiation of animal phyla (Cambrian explosion) - 2) First land plants - 3) Ordovician-Silurian extinction events - 4) Huge forests form on land, first land animals and seed plants - 5) Coal formation, first conifers, insect and amphibian giantism - 6) Low ocean levels, supercontinent Pangaea forms - 7) Permian-Triassic extinction event - 8) First primitive flowering plants and dinosaurs - 9) Triassic-Jurassic extinction event - 10) Age of dinosaurs - 11) Radiation of flowering plants - 12) Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event - 13) Radiation of mammals

Molecular oxygen, O2, is essential for cellular respiration in all aerobic organisms. It is used as electron acceptor in the mitochondria to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during oxidative phosphorylation. During this reaction, oxygen is reduced to water. Conversely, free oxygen is produced in the biosphere through photolysis (light-driven oxidation and splitting) of water during photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, green algae and plants, thus closing the biological water-oxygen redox cycle.

Before the evolution of water oxidation in photosynthetic bacteria, oxygen was almost nonexistent in earth's atmosphere. Free oxygen first appeared in significant quantities during the Paleoproterozoic era (between 2.5 billion years ago and 1.6 billion years ago) as a product of the metabolic action of early anaerobes (archaea and bacteria). These organisms developed the mechanism of oxygen evolution between 3.5 and 2.7 billion years ago. At first, the produced oxygen dissolved in the oceans and reacted with iron. It started to "gas out" of the oxygen-saturated waters about 2.7 billion years ago as evident in the rusting of iron-rich terrestrial rocks starting around that time. The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere increased gradually at first and shot up rapidly around 2.2 to 1.7 billion years ago to about 10% of its present level.[6]

The development of an oxygen-rich atmosphere was one of the most important events in the history of life on earth. The presence of large amounts of dissolved and free oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere may have driven most of the anaerobic organisms then living to extinction during the oxygen catastrophe about 2.4 billion years ago. However, the high electronegativity of O2 creates a large potential energy drop for cellular respiration, thus enabling organisms using aerobic respiration to produce much more ATP than anaerobic organisms. This makes them so efficient that they have come to dominate earth's biosphere.[7] Photosynthesis and cellular respiration of oxygen allowed for the evolution of eukaryotic cells and ultimately complex multicellular organisms such as plants and animals.

The atmospheric abundance of free oxygen in later geological epochs and its gradual increase up to the present has been largely due to synthesis by photosynthetic organisms. Over the past 500 million years, oxygen levels fluctuated between 15 and 35% per volume. Towards the end of the Carboniferous era (coal age) about 300 million years ago, atmospheric oxygen levels reached a maximum of 35% by volume, allowing insects and amphibians with limiting respiratory systems to grow much larger than today's species. Today, oxygen is the second most common component of the earth's atmosphere (about 21% by volume) after nitrogen. About three quarters of the free element is being produced by algae and green microorganisms in the oceans, and one quarter from terrestrial plants[citation needed].

Occurrence

Annual mean sea surface dissolved oxygen for the World Ocean. Note more oxygen in cold water near the poles.
Annual mean sea surface dissolved oxygen for the World Ocean. Note more oxygen in cold water near the poles. [8]

Oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass, after hydrogen and helium (see chemical element). Some of this oxygen was produced during stellar nucleosynthesis as a step in the CNO-II branch of the CNO cycle. However oxygen is primarily produced in massive stars. In stars with at least four times the Sun's mass, 16O nuclei are produced during the Carbon burning process. 16O can also be produced in stars with at least 8 times the Sun's mass as a result of photodisintegration during the Neon burning process.[9]

Oxygen is the most common component of the Earth's crust (49% by mass),[10] the second most common component of the Earth as a whole (28% by mass), the most common component of the world's oceans (86% by mass), and the second most common component of the Earth's atmosphere (20.947% by volume), second to nitrogen.

Elemental oxygen occurs not only in the atmosphere, but also as solution in the world's water bodies. At 25° C under 1 atm of air, a litre of water will dissolve about 6.04 cc (8.63 mg, 0.270 mmol) of oxygen, whereas sea water will dissolve about 4.9 cc (7.0 mg, 0.22 mmol). At 0° C the solubilities increase to 10.29 cc (14.7 mg, 0.460 mmol) for water and 8.0 cc (11.4 mg, 0.36 mmol) for sea water. This difference has important implications for ocean life, as polar oceans support a much higher density of life due to their oxygen content. [11]

See also Silicate minerals, Oxide minerals.

Production

Hoffman electrolysis apparatus used in electrolysis of water
Hoffman electrolysis apparatus used in electrolysis of water
Main article: Oxygen evolution

In nature, free oxygen is produced by the light-driven splitting of water during oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, green algae and plants.[12] Algae produce about 73 to 87 percent of the net global production of oxygen, which makes it available to humans and other animals for respiration.[13] Another major source of oxygen is trees. Trees can absorb carbon dioxide at the rate of 26 pounds per year - especially young trees that are still growing - while releasing oxygen into the air. (Global Relief-Georgia).[14]

In the laboratory and industrially, oxygen can be produced through electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen. A similar method is the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution from oxides and oxoacids. Chemical catalysts can be used as well, such as in chemical oxygen generators or oxygen candles that are used as part of the life support equipment on spacecraft and submarines.

Industrially, oxygen is typically produced in bulk quantity as a liquid produced by distillation from atmospheric air. In large quantities, the price of liquid oxygen (2001) is approximately $0.21/kg [15]. Since the primary cost of production is the energy cost of liquifying the air, the production cost will change as energy cost varies.

In the modern era, oxygen is increasingly obtained by non-cryogenic technolgies such as pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) technolgies [1].

Compounds

Due to its electronegativity, oxygen forms chemical bonds with almost all other elements hence the original definition of oxidation. The only elements known to escape the possibility of oxidation are a few of the noble gases, and fluorine. However, many noble metals (common examples: gold, platinum) resist direct chemical combination with oxygen, and substances like gold oxide must be formed by an indirect route.

The most familiar oxygen compound is water. Other well-known examples include silica (found in sand, glass, rock, etc.), and the compounds of carbon and oxygen, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), alcohols (R-OH), carbonyls, (R-CO-H or R-CO-R), and carboxylic acids (R-COOH). Oxygenated radicals such as chlorates (ClO3), perchlorates (ClO4), chromates (CrO42−), dichromates (Cr2O72−), permanganates (MnO4), and nitrates (NO3) are strong oxidizing agents in and of themselves. Phosphorus is biologically important in its oxygenated form as the phosphate (PO43−) ion. Many metals bond with oxygen atoms, such as iron in iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), commonly called rust.

Ozone (O3) is formed by electrostatic discharge in the presence of molecular oxygen. A double oxygen molecule (O2)2 is known and is found as a minor component of liquid oxygen. Epoxides are ethers in which the oxygen atom is part of a ring of three atoms.

One unexpected oxygen compound is dioxygen hexafluoroplatinate O2+PtF6. It was discovered when Neil Bartlett was studying the properties of PtF6. He noticed a change in color when this compound was exposed to atmospheric air. Bartlett reasoned that xenon should be oxidized by PtF6. This led him to the discovery of xenon hexafluoroplatinate Xe+PtF6.

See also: Category:Oxygen compounds

Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of oxygen

Oxygen has seventeen known isotopes with atomic masses ranging from 12.03 u to 28.06 u. Three are stable, 16O, 17O, and 18O, of which 16O is the most abundant (over 99.7%). The radioisotopes all have half-lives of less than three minutes. Nonetheless, 15O is used in positron emission tomography.

An atomic weight of 16 was assigned to oxygen prior to the definition of the unified atomic mass unit based upon 12C. Since physicists referred to 16O only, while chemists meant the naturally abundant mixture of isotopes, this led to slightly different atomic weight scales.

Precautions

Toxicity of O2

Main article: oxygen toxicity

Oxygen can be toxic at elevated partial pressures. Since oxygen partial pressure is the fraction of oxygen times the total pressure, elevated partial pressures can occur either from high oxygen fraction in breathing gas, or from high breathing gas pressure, or a combination of both. Oxygen toxicity usually begins to occur at partial pressures more than 0.5 atmospheres, or 2.5 times the normal sea-level oxygen partial pressure of about 0.2 atmospheres or bars. This means that at sea-level pressures, mixtures containing less than 50% oxygen are essentially non-toxic. However in medical applications (such as in ventilation gas mixtures in hospital applications) mixtures containing more than 50% oxygen can be expected to show lung toxicity, causing slow damage to the lungs over periods of days, with the rate of damage rising rapidly from mixtures between 50% and 100% oxygen. On the other hand, breathing 100% oxygen in space applications (such as in some modern spacesuits, or in early spacecraft such as the Apollo spacecraft), causes no damage due to the low total pressures (30% to 33% sea-level) used.[16] In the case of spacesuits, oxygen partial pressure in the breathing gas is typically about 0.30 bar (1.4 times normal), and oxygen partial pressure in the astronaut's blood (due to downward adjustments due to water vapor and CO2 in the alveoli) is close to sea-level normal of 0.2 bar.

In deep scuba diving and surface supplied diving and when using equipment which can provide high partial pressures of oxygen, such as rebreathers, oxygen toxicity to the lungs can occur, just as in medical applications. Due to the higher total pressures in these applications, the fraction of oxygen which produces lung damage may be considerably less than 50%. More importantly, under pressures higher than normal sea-level, a far more serious form of oxygen toxicity in the central nervous system may lead to generalized seizures. This form of oxygen toxicity usually occurs after several hours exposure to oxygen partial pressures over about 1.4 atmospheres (bars) (i.e. 7 times normal), with the time decreasing for higher pressures above this, and with great variation from person to person. At over three bars of oxygen partial pressure (15 times normal), seizures typically occur within minutes.

Toxicity and antibacterial use of other chemical oxygen forms

Certain derivatives of oxygen, such as ozone (O3), singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and superoxide, are also highly toxic. Cells have developed various mechanisms to protect against all of these toxic compounds. For instance, the naturally-occurring glutathione can act as an antioxidant, as can bilirubin which is normally a breakdown product of hemoglobin. To protect against the destructive nature of peroxides, nearly every organism on earth has developed some form of the enzyme catalase, which very quickly disproportionates hydrogen peroxide into water and dioxygen. Another nearly universally present enzyme in living organisms (except for a few species of bacteria which use Mn2+ ions directly for the job) is superoxide dismutase. This family of enzymes disproportionates superoxide to oxygen and peroxide, which is then in turn dealt with, by catalase.

Immune systems of higher organisms have long made use of reactive forms of oxygen which they produce. Not only do antibodies catalyze production of peroxide from oxygen, it is now known that immune cells produce peroxide, superoxide, and singlet oxygen in the course of an immune response. Recently, singlet oxygen has been found to be a source of biologically-produced ozone: this reaction proceeds through an unusual compound dihydrogen trioxide, also known as trioxidane, (HOOOH) which is an antibody-catalyzed product of singlet oxygen and water. This compound in turn disproportionates to ozone and peroxide, providing two powerful antibacterials. The body's range of defense against all of these active oxidizing agents is hardly surprising, then, given their "deliberate" employment as antimicrobial agents in the immune response.[17]

Oxygen derivatives are prone to form free radicals, especially in metabolic processes. Because they can cause severe damage to cells and their DNA before they are dealt with, they form part of many theories of carcinogenesis and aging.

Combustion hazard

Highly concentrated sources of oxygen promote rapid combustion and therefore are fire and explosion hazards in the presence of fuels. Oxygen itself is not the fuel, but as a reactant, concentrated oxygen may allow combustion to proceed dangerously rapidly. The fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew on a test launchpad spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure oxygen as would be usual in an actual flight, but to maintain positive pressure in the capsule, this was at slightly more than atmospheric pressure instead of the ⅓ normal pressure that would be used in flight. (See partial pressure.)

Hazards also apply to compounds of oxygen with a high oxidative potential, such as high concentration peroxides, chlorates, perchlorates, and dichromates; they also can often cause chemical burns.

See also

References

  1. ^ Structure of Oxygen Molecule (triplet). Glasser Group, University of Missouri-Columbia. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  2. ^ Chieh, Chung. Bond Lengths and Energies. University of Waterloo. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  3. ^ Ball, Philip. "New form of oxygen found", news@nature.com, November 16, 2001. Retrieved on 2007-03-03. 
  4. ^ F. Cacace, G. de Petris, A. Troiani, (2001). "Experimental Detection of Tetraoxygen". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 40 (21): 4062 - 4065. DOI:<4062::AID-ANIE4062>3.0.CO;2-X 10.1002/1521-3773(20011105)40:21<4062::AID-ANIE4062>3.0.CO;2-X. 
  5. ^ H. Guerlac (1954). "The Poets' Nitre". Isis 45 (3): 243-255. 
  6. ^ Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. (2005). Biology, 7th Edition. San Francisco: Pearson - Benjamin Cummings, 522-523. ISBN 0-8053-7171-0. 
  7. ^ Freeman, Scott (2005). Biological Science, 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson - Prentice Hall, 214, 586. ISBN 0-13-140941-7. 
  8. ^ Data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001.
  9. ^ Balachandran, S. C. (October 9-11, 1995). "Carbon and Oxygen Nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy: Problems and Prospects". Proceedings of the sixth (6th) annual October Astrophysics Conference: 188-195, College Park; Maryland: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Retrieved on 2007-01-08. 
  10. ^ Los Alamos National Laboratory – Oxygen
  11. ^ From The Chemistry and Fertility of Sea Waters by H.W. Harvey, 1955, citing C.J.J. Fox, "On the coefficients of absorption of atmospheric gases in sea water", Publ. Circ. Cons. Explor. Mer, no. 41, 1907. Harvey however notes that according to later articles in Nature the values appear to be about 3% too high.
  12. ^ Raven, Peter H.; Ray F. Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn (2005). Biology of Plants, 7th Edition. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers, 115-127. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2. 
  13. ^ Grayce, Christopher. Algae for Oxygen. Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  14. ^ Anonymous. Benefits. Plant-It 2020. Retrieved on 2007-03-03.
  15. ^ NASAFacts FS-2001-09-015-KSC, Space Shuttle Use of Propellants and Fluids, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, September 2001 (postscript file here
  16. ^ Wade, Mark (2007). Space Suits. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  17. ^ Hoffmann, Roald (2004). "The Story of O". American Scientist 92 (1): 23. Retrieved on 2007-03-03. 

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