Indium

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49 cadmiumindiumtin
Ga

In

Tl
General
Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49
Chemical series poor metals
Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p
Appearance silvery lustrous gray
Standard atomic weight 114.818(3)  g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 3
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.31  g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.02  g·cm−3
Melting point 429.75 K
(156.60 °C, 313.88 °F)
Boiling point 2345 K
(2072 °C, 3762 °F)
Heat of fusion 3.281  kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 231.8  kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 26.74  J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 1196 1325 1485 1690 1962 2340
Atomic properties
Crystal structure tetragonal
Oxidation states 3
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.78 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st:  558.3  kJ·mol−1
2nd:  1820.7  kJ·mol−1
3rd:  2704  kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 155pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 156  pm
Covalent radius 144  pm
Van der Waals radius 193 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 83.7 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 81.8  W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 32.1  µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 1215 m/s
Young's modulus 11  GPa
Mohs hardness 1.2
Brinell hardness 8.83  MPa
CAS registry number 7440-74-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of indium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
113In 4.3% In is stable with 64 neutrons
115In 95.7% 4.41×1014y Beta- 0.495 115Sn
References

Indium (IPA: /ˈɪndiəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol In and atomic number 49. This rare, soft, malleable and easily fusible poor metal, is chemically similar to aluminium or gallium but looks more like zinc (zinc ores are also the primary source of this metal). Its current primary application is to form transparent electrodes from indium tin oxide in liquid crystal displays. It is widely used in thin-films to form lubricated layers (during World War II it was widely used to coat bearings in high-performance aircraft). It's also used for making particularly low melting point alloys, and is a component in some lead-free solders.

Contents

[edit] Notable characteristics

Indium is a very soft, silvery-white true metal that has a bright luster. As a pure metal indium emits a high-pitched "cry" when it is bent. Both gallium and indium are able to wet glass.

One unusual property of indium is that its most common isotope is very slightly radioactive; it very slowly decays by beta emission to tin over time. This radioactivity is not considered hazardous, mainly because its decay rate is nearly 50,000 times slower than that of natural thorium, with a half-life of 4.41×1014 years, four orders of magnitude larger than the age of the universe. Also, indium is not a notorious cumulative poison like its neighbor cadmium, and is relatively rare.

[edit] Applications

The first large-scale application for indium was as a coating for bearings in high-performance aircraft engines during World War II. Afterwards, production gradually increased as new uses were found in fusible alloys, solders, and electronics. In the 1950s, tiny beads of it were used for the emitters and collectors of alloy junction transistors. In the middle and late 1980s, the development of indium phosphide semiconductors and indium tin oxide thin films for liquid crystal displays (LCD) aroused much interest. By 1992, the thin-film application had become the largest end use. Other uses:

[edit] History

Indium (named after the indigo line in its atomic spectrum) was discovered by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter in 1863 while they were testing zinc ores with a spectrograph in search of thallium. It is interesting to note that most elements were discovered while searching for other elements. Richter went on to isolate the metal in 1867.

[edit] Occurrence

Ductile Indium wire
Ductile Indium wire

Indium is produced mainly from residues generated during zinc ore processing but is also found in iron, lead, and copper ores. The amount of indium consumed is largely a function of worldwide LCD production. Increased manufacturing efficiency and recycling (especially in Japan) maintain a balance between demand and supply. The average indium price for 2005 was US$900 per kilogram. This is unusually high. Demand increased as the metal is used in LCDs and televisions, and supply decreased when a number of Chinese mining concerns stopped extracting indium from their zinc tailings. In 2002, the price was US$94/kg.

Up until 1924, there was only about a gram of isolated indium on the planet. The Earth is estimated to contain about 0.1 ppm of indium which means it is about as abundant as silver, although indium is in fact nearly three times more expensive by weight. Canada is a leading producer of indium. The Teck Cominco refinery in Trail, BC, is the largest single source, with production of 32,500 kg in 2005, 41,800 kg in 2004 and 36,100 kg in 2003. Worldwide production is typically over 300 tonnes per year, but demand has risen rapidly with the increased popularity of LCD computer monitors and televisions.

[edit] Precautions

Pure indium in metal form is considered non-toxic by most sources. In the welding and semiconductor industries, where indium exposure is relatively high, there have been no reports of any toxic side-effects.

This may not be the case with indium compounds: there is some unconfirmed evidence that suggests that indium has a low level of toxicity. Other sources are more definite about indium compounds' toxicity - for example, the WebElements website states that "All indium compounds should be regarded as highly toxic. Indium compounds damage the heart, kidney, and liver, and may be teratogenic."[2] For example, indium trichloride anhydrous (InCl3) is quite toxic, while indium phosphide (InP) is both toxic and a suspected carcinogen.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Journal of Crystal Growth DOI:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.09.006
  2. ^ http://www.webelements.com/

[edit] External links

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